20 years under Putin: a timeline

Pavel Khodorkovsky is the president of the Institute of Modern Russia, an organization he founded to continue the work his father, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, began through the Open Russia Foundation. The Institute of Modern Russia seeks to promote the development of civil society in Russia by reinforcing the rule of law and strengthening relationships between Russia and other countries. Since his father’s arrest in 2003, Khodorkovsky has been unable to return to Russia for fear of political persecution and actions against him aimed at pressuring his father to abandon his legal battle.

Khodorkovsky holds a degree in business administration from Babson College. In 2011, he cofounded Enertiv, a cleantech energy monitoring company.